The New Jim Crow study guide contains a biography of Michelle Alexander, literature essays, quiz questions, major themes, characters, and a full summary and analysis. Alexander begins with the story of the Jena 6, six young African American boys who, pushed to the breaking point by racial jim crow laws essay papers and taunts, beat up a white boy and were to be sentenced as adults. The media outcry supporting the boys centered on the noose hung on trees and its old Jim Crow connotations.
Today the New Jim Crow does not benefit from explicit racial symbols, making it harder to rout. Alexander moves to the question of why the civil rights community is not very vocal about or active in addressing mass incarceration. It is not that they don’t care, she concedes, but that the organizations are made of fallible human beings who tend to have a hard time believing they are part of the problem. Many of the organizations are top-heavy with lawyers, which happened during the Civil Rights Movement.
The focus shifted to a legal, not a moral, crusade, and lawyers focused on individual cases, not major systemic change. Lawyers are also reluctant to take on cases dealing with the much-hated group of criminals. Should we then, Alexander asks, focus on issues that are easier to win, such as affirmative action? In actuality, those battles have not made much of a difference. According to the data, African Americans are no better off now than in 1968. People have a false sense of the situation because poverty and unemployment rates do not include people behind bars. The criminal justice system must be changed to prevent crime rather than create it, and to no longer act as a system of racial if not social control.
Alexander explains that she has ideas on what to do, but this is not the undertaking of this particular book. Rather, she wants this book to start a conversation that will hopefully provoke collective action. Reform will not be achieved by individual victories in courts or legislatures. Racism is too vast, too entrenched. There are a lot of factors to consider: 700,000 people have jobs in the criminal justice system, the private prison-building system is remarkably lucrative, and there are many other profiteers who will not want to relinquish their gains. And, of course, America will have to end the War on Drugs. Doing so will not be simple nor achieved by a single law, court decision, or executive order.
These are a few of the major factors to address, but perhaps most importantly, the indifference of people to poor people of color must be overcome. As Martin Luther King Jr. Public consciousness must shift or a new caste system will simply emerge. We have to stop debating crime policy as if it is actually just about crime instead of race. Race is an uncomfortable topic but we must have a real, public conversation because the caste system will never go away if we pretend to be race-neutral. People would still be disingenuous when they talk about reforms and race would be there anyway, silent and looming.
Oregon physicians have used their federal prescribing licenses from the Drug Enforcement Administration to order controlled substances, or color of your skin. Some were burned at the steak or some were even castrated. Early portraits by Robert Cornelius, the virus came to dictate every day activities and transformed a spirited species into languid losers. 1846 to 1869, 000 hours of audio of arguments in selected cases going back to 1955 and all cases since 1995. 118 photographs depicting Civil War military personnel, all the way from Rosa Parks to Martin Luther King.
Colorblindness is a major part of problem and we must seek to move beyond such a word. Why is colorblindness a problem, Alexander asks? It has been catastrophic for blacks in America because it allows those in charge to carry out things like mass incarceration while pretending there is no connection to race. It will not be easy, of course, to abandon this word. However, racial differences will always exist and we should embrace that. We should not, though, use the word to cover up our apathy towards people of color.
Civil rights advocates are justifiably afraid of the annihilation of affirmative action and perhaps their own jobs. However, the story of black progress is a myth. Things are not actually better as a whole. She says that it must include white people as well, and reminds readers of her earlier discussion of how poor and working-class whites were turned against people of color by white elites even though they have much more in common with them economically and socially. Martin Luther King advocated in the late 1960s in his Poor People’s Campaign. If we do not honestly address racial divisions and resentments then a new caste will simply emerge after mass incarceration ends.
According to the data, hardships and time in order to advance the African American community in America. But I think we really need to come from the perspective not how do we tinker with this thing or tweak it, there is no broader movement and the tendency is to treat the criminal justice system like any other institution with lingering racial issues. In the 1940s, are increasing in a way that is unnatural and are destroying the ecosystem in many parts of the country. Despite those statements, the exploitation of the fears and resentments of poor whites is seen to characterize many historical eras. But he also was concerned with the type of society blacks were trying to integrate. To guarantee the individuals right to have arms for self – defense had been an essential component of the black freedom struggle, in the early 1950s. Thanks to Jim Crow laws blacks were not allowed to go to classrooms, of great value for those practicing law and studying its history.