History of the Dictionary

The earliest known dictionaries were Akkadian cuneiform tables Empire with lists of Sumerian-Akkadian bilingual words, discovered in Ebla (modern Syria) and dated about 2300 BCE. At the beginning of the second millennium BC Urra = hubullu glossary is the canonical Babylonian version of these bilingual Sumerian word lists. A Chinese dictionary, c. 3rd century BCE Erya, was the first surviving monolingual dictionary; Although some sources cite c. 800 BCE Shizhoupian as a “dictionary” of modern scholarship considers a calligraphic collection of Chinese characters from the bronzes of the Zhou dynasty. Phyllites of Cos (4th century BC) wrote a pioneering vocabulary of pell-mell (Ἄτακτοι γλῶσσαι, Átaktoi glossai) explaining the meaning of words and other rare Homeric literary terms, words of local dialects and the Technical terms [8]. Apollonius the Sophist (1st century AD) Scripture the most ancient Homeric lexicon. [7] The first Sanskrit dictionary, Amarakośa, was written by Amara Sinha v. IV century AD. Written in verse, ranked about 10,000 words. According to Nihon Shoki, the first Japanese dictionary was the 682 CE Niina glossary long lost Chinese characters. The oldest existing Japanese dictionary, c. 835 CE Tenrei Bansho Meigi, was also a glossary of Chinese writing. An Irish CE dictionary ninth century, healthy Cormaic, etymologies and explanations contained more than 1400 Irish words. In India, around 1320, Amir Khusrau compliled the Khaliq-e-bari which mainly dealt with Hindvi and Persian words.
Petit Larousse is an example of an illustrated dictionary.
Arabic dictionaries were compiled between the eighth and fourteenth centuries CE, the organization of words for the rhyme (the last syllable), in the alphabetical order of the radicals, or in the alphabetical order of the first letter (the system used in Modern dictionaries European language). The modern system used mainly in specialized dictionaries, such as the terms of the Quran and hadiths, while most general dictionaries, such as the Lisan al-‘Arab (XIII century, remains the biggest known dictionary scale Arabic) and al-Kamouss al-Muhit (14th century), the words sorted alphabetically by radicals. The Kamouss al-Muhit is the first practical dictionary in Arabic, which includes only the words and their definitions, eliminating the supporting examples used in dictionaries like the Lisan and Oxford Dictionary Inglés.
In medieval Europe, glossaries equivalent to the Latin words in the vernacular or Latin language were simpler to use (eg, Leiden Glossary). The Catholicon (1287) by Johannes Balbus, a great grammatical work with an alphabetical lexicon, has been widely adopted. It was the basis of several bilingual dictionaries and was one of the oldest books (in 1460) to be printed. In 1502, published the Dictionary of Ambrogio Calepino, originally a Latin monolingual dictionary, which throughout the sixteenth century was expanded to become a multilingual glossary. In 1532, Robert Estienne published the Thesaurus Linguae Latinae and in 1572 his son Henri Estienne published the Thesaurus Linguae Graecae, which served until the nineteenth century as the basis of Greek lexicography. The first monolingual dictionary written in Europe was Spanish, written by the Treasury of Sebastian Covarrubias of Castilian or the Spanish language, published in 1611 in Madrid, Spain. In 1612 the first edition of Vocabolario dell’Accademia della Crusca, for the Italian was published. He served as a model for similar work in French and English. In 1690, in Rotterdam was published, posthumously, the Universal Dictionary of Antoine Furetiere for the French. In 1694 came the first edition of the Dictionnaire de l’Académie française. Between 1712 and 1721 the Portuguese vocabulary portughez and written by Raphael Bluteau was published. The Spanish Royal Academy published the first edition of the Dictionary of the Spanish Language in 1780, but its Dictionary of Authorities, which included citations of literary works, was published in 1726. The Lexicon totius Latinitatis by Egidio Forcellini was published In 1777; It formed the basis of all similar works that have since been published.
The first edition of A Greek-English Lexicon of Liddell and Robert Henry George Scott appeared in 1843; This work remained at the end of the twentieth century, the basic Greek dictionary. And in 1858, he published the first volume of Deutsches Wörterbuch by the brothers Grimm; The work was completed in 1961. Between 1861 and 1874, the Dizionario della lingua Niccolò Tommaseo was published.